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oracle连接查询详解

一 Equijoins 等值连接

等值连接是条件连接在连接运算符为“=”号时的特例。(相对于非等值连接,如:between…and条件)。它是从关系R与S的广义笛卡尔积中选取A,B属性值相等的那些元组。

SQL> select e.employee_id, e.last_name,
2                   e.department_id, d.department_id,
3                   d.location_id
4  from   employees e, departments d
5  where  e.department_id = d.department_id;
EMPLOYEE_ID LAST_NAME  DEPARTMENT_ID DEPARTMENT_ID LOCATION_ID
----------- ------------------------- -------------        -------------     -----------
198              OConnell                              50                           50         1500
199              Grant                                     50                            50         1500
200              Whalen                                10                            10          1700
201              Hartstein                              20                            20         1800
......
二 Self joins  自连接

自连接(self join)是SQL语句中经常要用的连接方式,使用自连接可以将自身表的一个镜像当作另一个表来对待,从而能够得到一些特殊的数据。

SELECT e1.last_name||' works for '||e2.last_name
"Employees and Their Managers"
FROM employees e1, employees e2
WHERE e1.manager_id = e2.employee_id
AND e1.last_name LIKE 'R%'
ORDER BY e1.last_name;
Employees and Their Managers
-------------------------------
Rajs works for Mourgos
Raphaely works for King
Rogers works for Kaufling
Russell works for King
三 Cartesian Products 笛卡尔积

   
如果2个表连接查询而没有连接条件,则oracle返回他们的笛卡尔积。即oracle返回一个表里每一行与另一个表每一行的组合(15 X 4)。

SCOTT@orcl> select count(1) from emp;
COUNT(1)
----------
15
SCOTT@orcl> select count(1) from dept;
COUNT(1)
----------
4
SCOTT@orcl> select count(1) from emp, dept;
COUNT(1)
----------
60
四 Inner Joins 内连接

内连接也叫简单连接,是2个或更多表的关联并且仅返回那些满足连接条件的行。

select e.employee_id, e.last_name,
e.department_id, d.department_id,
d.location_id
FROM   employees e JOIN departments d
ON  e.department_id = d.department_id;
五 Outer joins 外连接

简单连接的扩展。分为左外连接(Left  outer joins)、右外连接(Right  outer joins)、全外连接(Full  outer  joins)和Partitioned Outer Joins(分区外连接,用于数据仓库)。

SELECT d.department_id, e.last_name
FROM departments d LEFT OUTER JOIN employees e
ON d.department_id = e.department_id
ORDER BY d.department_id, e.last_name;

另外一种写法:

SELECT d.department_id, e.last_name
FROM departments d, employees e
WHERE d.department_id = e.department_id(+)
ORDER BY d.department_id, e.last_name;

Oracle 官方推荐使用第一种写法。

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