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说说 update 和 upgrade 的区别

对于一个运维站长来说更新和升级是个绕不开的工作,update和upgrade这两个单词一定是都不陌生的,虽然都是升级或者更新的意思,很多站长很难搞懂两个单词到底有什么区别(其实在软件更新方面两个是可以通用的)。最基本的讲,update是“更新”的意思,而upgrade则是“升级”的意思。

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upgrade V.S. update:英文解释

update:

  • to make sth more modern by adding new parts
  • to give sb the most recent information about sth

upgrade:

  • to make a piece of machinery, computer system, etc. more powerful
  • to give sb a more important job
  • to give sb a better seat on a plane, room in a hotel, etc. than the one that they have paid for

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update和upgrade的主要区别

update是更新的意思,主要是为原有的东西增加新功能,或者对已有的部分做出更改等。比如,有人告诉你他换了新手机号码,你在你的手机上删掉了原有的号码并换成新的号码,那么就是update,而不能用upgrade

upgrade是升级的意思,是指从较低级版本升级到高级的版本,这种升级往往伴有新功能的增加,因此也有update的意思。但是,如果是给予某人升职、坐飞机时的升舱等,只能用upgrade,而不能用update。

因此在计算机领域,软件、系统的更新和升级往往是同一个意思,在这种环境中update和upgrade是可以通用的。只是往细了说update是量上的变化,而upgrade质上的变化。

updateupgrade.png

yum updateupgrade的区别?

首先yum updateyum upgrade的功能是一样的,都是将需要更新的package更新至软件源中的最新版。

唯一不同是:yum upgrade会删除旧版本的package,而yum update则会保留。

注意!如果你的某些软件依赖旧版本的package,请使用yum update

附赠关于yum updateupgrade的区别英文最全解释:

yum update originally just did upgrades of packages to new versions.
If, for example, foo-awesome obsoleted foo, yum update wouldn’t offer
to upgrade from foo to foo-awesome. Adding the –obsoletes flag to yum
update made it do the extra checks to also offer that upgrade path.
yum upgrade was added as (essentially) an alias for yum –obsoletes
update. Since this is the behavior that almost everyone wants all of
the time, the configuration option obsoletes=1 was added to the
default /etc/yum.conf, making yum update and yum upgrade equivalent on
any recent, stock, Fedora/RHEL/CentOS/etc.

If you want to avoid kernel updates when you’re running yum update,
you can just do yum –exclude=kernel* update. If you want automatic
updates on, but you want to avoid automatic kernel upgrades, then
adding the exclude to yum.conf is probably the right answer.

There probably isn’t a Right Answer for your question. RHEL and
RHEL-based distributions don’t have the same philosophy as the Debian
developers when it comes to updates, so the tools don’t encourage the
same sorts of behavior.

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